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Nurslings of Protestantism: The Questionable Privilege of Freedom in Charlotte Brontë's Villette
Monika Mazurek, Pedagogical University of Cracow
Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 49/4, 2014
In Charlotte Brontë’s Villette, a number of foreigners at various points express their amazement or admiration of the behaviour of Englishwomen, who, like the novel’s narrator Lucy Snowe, travel alone, visit public places unchaperoned and seem on the whole to lead much less constrained lives than their Continental counterparts. This notion was apparently quite widespread at this time, as the readings of various Victorian texts confirm – they often refer to the independence Englishwomen enjoyed, sometimes with a note of caution but often in a self-congratulatory manner. Villette, the novel which, similarly to its predecessor, The Professor, features a Protestant protagonist living in a Catholic country, makes a connection between Lucy’s Protestantism and her freedom, considered traditionally in English political discourse to be an essentially English and Protestant virtue. However, as the novel shows, in the case of women the notion of freedom is a complicated issue. While the pupils at Mme Beck’s pensionnat have to be kept in check by a sophisticated system of surveillance, whose main purpose is to keep them away from men and sex, Lucy can be trusted to behave according to the Victorian code of conduct, but only because her Protestant upbringing inculcated in her the need to control her desires. The Catholics have the
Church to play the role of the disciplinarian for them, while Lucy has to grapple with and stifle her own emotions with her own hands, even when the repression is clearly the cause of her psychosomatic illness. In the end, the expectations regarding the behaviour of women in England and Labassecour are not that much different; the difference is that while young Labassecourians are controlled by the combined systems of family, school and the Church, young Englishwomen are expected to exercise a similar control on their own.
The Depiction of Thwarted Love and Revenge in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights
By Ali Alhaj
Anchor Academic Publishing, 2014
The present study aims at examining the depiction of thwarted love and revenge in Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights. The study is divided into four chapters in addition to a conclusion.Chapter One: casts light on Emily Brontë's achievement as of an intrinsically different kind from that of any of her contemporizes . Chapter Two: traces Emily Brontë's Contribution, Reputation and Influence. Emily Brontë illustrates some aspects of human nature more fully than the other Victorians. Also, she is the most poetical of all English novelists. Chapter Three: explores Thwarted Love in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights. Chapter Four : examines revenge in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights. Emily Bronte in her fascinating ''Wuthering Heights", she proves that man is a creature who differs from all the other creatures. The main difference lies in the extremeness of the feelings of love, hate and revenge in every human being. In her metaphysics, love is the primary law of human nature and paramount principle of her universe. Adhere to, it is at once the source of joy and harmony; rejected or subverted, it becomes the fountainhead of enmity and revenge.
Gênero, identidade e diferença no romance Jane Eyre, de Charlotte Brontë
by Luana Câmpara Talasca
Universidade Federal Do Rio Grande Do Sul
Quando foi lançado, em 1847, o romance Jane Eyre teve muitas de suas características everamente condenadas pela crítica literária da época. O uso de prosa poética, a maneira como as emoções eram retratadas e o tipo e vocabulário utilizado foram considerados inapropriados pelos analistas vitorianos. Ainda durante muitas décadas acreditou-se que a obra não deixava transparecer o contexto histórico do qual derivava, ou que a autora não tinha noção do que estava acontecendo a sua volta. Foi apenas com uma mudança de perspectiva por parte da crítica literária, ocorrida nas últimas décadas do século XX, que muito do que até então parecia invisível começou a ser compreendido. Dessa forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar uma leitura de Jane Eyre com vistas a desfazer essa impressão errônea sobre a acuidade histórica do romance. A metodologia utilizada consiste em aplicar conceitos propostos por Sandra Gilbert e Susan Gubar sobre estudos de gênero para analisar em que medida as ações e as visões de mundo de determinadas personagens ao mesmo tempo refletem e representam o momento histórico no qual a obra foi concebida.