Wednesday, April 18, 2018

Wednesday, April 18, 2018 12:30 am by M. in , , , ,    No comments
The Mansions in the Sky poems by Simon Armitage appeared in the September issue of PN Review:
PN Review 237, Vol. 44 No. 1, Sep - Oct 2017
Mansions in the Sky. The Rise and Fall of Branwell Brontë
by Simon Armitage
An Analysis Of Translation Of Cultural Words In “Jane Eyre” Novel By Charlotte Brontë
Fitriani Lestari, 2017
Universitas Pamulang, Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia

The translation procedures applied in Jane Eyre novel including its translation in Indonesian. To support the study, the writer used the theory of Newmark (1988). In analyzing the data findings, a descriptive qualitative method was used. The results of this study revealed that there are four categories of cultural words found in this novel such as ecology, material culture, social culture, and organizations, customs, activities, procedures, concepts. Among all of the cultural word categories proposed by Newmark, only one category was not found in the novel, namely gestures and habits category. In rendering the selected English cultural words into Indonesian, eight procedures were used. They are: (1) cultural equivalent, it was used to translate the cultural words of bird of paradise, easy-chair, mama, and working people(11%); (2) Expansion; it was used to translate the cultural words of mastiffs, convolvuli, robin, elm, pollard willow, linnet, plover, bilberries, bush-holly, crape and Charles I (31%); (3) transference, it was used to translate the cultural words of foxglove, primrose, miss, and Felix (11%); (4) naturalization, it was used to translate the cultural words of Scotland, oak, and orthodox (9%); (5) couplets, it was used to translate the cultural words of crocuses, pansies, double daisies, and Psalms (11%); (6) descriptive equivalent, it was used to translate the cultural words of Welsh rabbit, ottoman, widow’s cap, and charity school (11%); (7) synonymy, it was used to translate the cultural words of carriage, pelisse, cloak, and porridge (11%); (8) notes, it was used to translate the cultural word of negus (3%). The results of the analysis showed that ecological cultural words are the most dominant among them. Meanwhile, the dominant procedure applied by the translator was the expansion procedure.
By the labour of the hands : a emancipação através do trabalho : protagonistas femininas na ficção de Anne Brontë
by Lima, Sónia Aires
Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

The present dissertation aims to demonstrate, how labour – and its resulting salary – gave the nineteenth-century middle-class woman a measured possibility of some type of independence. Although frequently inferior to what was to be considered fair and rarely comparable to what a man would meet, it will be weighed bearing in mind its social impact. A theoretical frame of work will be drawn to support the present study. This essay will also question whether women’s emancipation led, in fact, to a tangible independence and to an awareness of their precarious situation, or whether a professional career was just another method for women to confine themselves. This dissertation is divided into two parts. In the first part, composed of three chapters, a contextual framework of Victorian middle-class women will be presented, according to three main aspects: society, culture and education. Their way of life will be described; nineteenth-century notions of Gender will be approached, as well as how these notions were perceived through the analysis of Victorian literary works. The second part of this essay, also composed of three chapters, specifically explores the middle-class women’s emancipation through work in the Victorian Era. Thus, literary works by Anne Brontë – Agnes Grey (1847) and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall  (1848) – are analysed, bearing in mind the issues they approach, as well as their borrowings on the author’s own working experience. These are key works in this dissertation insofar Anne Brontë’s female characters are significant examples, although in distinct situations, of women who use labour as a means to achieve their independence. The second part of this study opens with an introductory note on the Brontë family. Its main purpose is to describe Anne Brontë’s context in order to better understand the author’s views on women’s lives since, to this day very little is known about this writer. A brief biography of Anne Brontë is followed by a cultural analysis of Brontë’s novels, Agnes Grey (1847) and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848) which will enable us to draw a more clarified portrait of nineteenth-century notions of work and labour observed from a woman’s perspective.


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